Monday, 30 April 2018

Personality Disorder: Types, Causes And Symptoms :Cluster A, Cluster B and Subtypes

What is a Personality Disorder?

Personality Disorder: Types, Causes And Symptoms :

A Personality Disorder is a type of mental disorder in which a person has the unhealthy pattern of thinking, behaving and functioning. 


According to the ICD-10 the Personality disorder is defined as 

"Characteristic and enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior, that, as a whole, deviates markedly from the culturally, expected and accepted range.


 Usually, Personality Disorder started in teenage or in early adulthood.




Major Symptoms Of  Personality Disorder:

   Persistent, maladaptive, inflexible patterns:
  • Of thinking(about self, other and the world)

  • Feeling(intensity of emotions)

  • Behavior

  • Relationship with others

  • Cause significant distress to self and to others.


                    Types Of Personality Disorder:


1) Cluster A (Odd or Eccentric disorder)

     Cluster A personality disorder includes- Paranoid Personality Disorder, Schizoid Personality Disorder and Schizotypal Disorder.
  
a) Paranoid Personality Disorder
  • Pervasive mistrust/suspiciousness - misinterpreting friendly or neutral actions of others as hostile.
  • Self- referential attitude.

  • A tendency to bear grudges.

  • A combative sense of personal rights.

  • Excessive sensitivity to criticism and setbacks.

  • Preoccupation with conspiratorial explanations for personal or universal events.


b) Schizoid Personality Disorder
  • Inability to express both positive tenders feelings as well as negative feelings like anger.

  • No desire for relationships or close friends.

  • Emotional coldness/ detachment.

  • Indifference to criticism or praise.

  • Unintentional disregard for social norms.


c) Schizotypal Disorder

  • Appearance and behavior are odd and eccentric.

  • The tendency to social withdrawal.

  • Old Belief.

  • Paranoid Ideas.

  • Ruminations involving violent or sexual themes.

  • Depersonalization / Derealization / illusions.

  • Transient quasi-psychotic episodes.


2) Cluster B Personality Disorder


Cluster B Personality disorders are characterized by dramatic, erratic and emotional behavior. 

They include- 

Antisocial Personality Disorder,

Borderline Personality Disorder, 

Histrionic Personality Disorder, 

Avoidant Personality Disorder, 

Dependent Personality Disorder, 

Obsessive-Compulsive(Anankastic) Personality Disorder, 

Passive-aggressive Personality Disorder



a) Antisocial Personality Disorder: This disorder is also known as Dissocial Personality Disorder in ICD-10. Other related terms include Psychopathic Personality, Sociopathic Personality, Dangerous and Severe Personality disorder.

  • Low threshold for aggression/impulsivity resulting in fights, assaults.

  • Incapacity to experience remorse and to learn from punishments.

  • Can easily establish relationships, but ain't maintain them.

  • Callous unconcern for feelings of others.

  • Disregard for social rules as evidenced by repeatedly breaking the law.

b) Borderline Personality Disorder:

A borderline personality disorder is generally characterized by unstable effects of intense anxiety, irritability that last usually for only a few hours at a time.


  • Involvement in intense, unstable relationships in which the other person is alternately idealized and devalued.

  • Recurrent threats or acts of self-harm, especially self-mutilation.

  • Chronic feelings of emptiness.

  • The patient makes frantic efforts to avoid abandonment.

  • A tendency to quarrelsome behaviors.

  • A tendency to act impulsively without consideration of results such as alcohol, drugs, sex, driving, etc.

  • Frequent outbursts of anger or violence, physical fights.

  • A patient may expierence dissociative symptoms, paranoid ideas, etc.



c) Histrionic Personality Disorder
  
   Histrionic Personality Disorder is characterized by wanting to be the center of attention in events that one participates.

  • Usually, the patient feels uncomfortable in situations where one cannot be the center of attention.

  • Exaggerated expression of emotions.

  • Shallow and labile affect.

  • Theatrical speech that lacks specific details.

  • Inappropriate seductiveness in behavior.

  • Over-concern with physical attractiveness, in an attempt to draw the attention of others.

  • Easily suggestible and influenced by others.

  •  Histrionic Personality Disorder is associated with Somatization Disorder.



d) Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Named after Narcissus, a hunter in Greek mythology, who fell in love with his own reflection in a pool of water.

  • A belief that one is special.

  • Lack of empathy: inability/unwillingness to identify with the feelings of others.

  • Envious of others, but also feels that others are envious of her/him.

  • Arrogant attitude or behavior.

  • Need for an excessive admiration or attention seeking.

  • Preoccupation with fantasies of success, power, beauty, ideal love, etc.

  • Exploitation of others in relationships and taking advantages of others to achieve one's goal.


e) Avoidant Personality Disorder
  • Avoidance of activities that involve interpersonal contact for fear of criticism or rejection.

  • A belief that one is inept, unappealing or inferior to others.

  • Preoccupied with the fear of being criticised or rejected in social situations.

  • General feelings of tension.

  • Restrictions on lifestyle because of the need for physical security.

  • Unwillingness to get involved unless certain of being accepted and liked.



f) Dependent Personality Disorder

 In Dependent Personality disorder the person excessively depending on others for an emotional support.

  • Inability to make even everyday decisions without advice or reassurance from others.

  • Allowing others or wanting others to make important life decisions.

  • Subordinating one's own needs to the needs of those that one depends on.

  • Difficulty in doing things due to lack of self-confidence.

  • Fear of losing support.

  • Feeling helpless when alone.

  • Preoccupied with exaggerated fears of being unable to care for oneself if alone.


g) Obsessive-Compulsive(Anankastic) Personality Disorder

  • Preoccupied with Perfectionism.

  • Excessive doubting.

  • Preoccupied with details, lists, rules, etc that interferes with the main objective of the task being done.

  • Excessive conscientiousness and inflexibility with morals, ethics, and values.

  • General Stubbornness.

  • Rigid adherence to social conventions


h) Passive-aggressive Personality Disorder

  • Procrastination.

  • Failing to do one's share of teamwork.

  • Avoids obligations by claiming to have forgotten.

  • Protesting that others make unreasonable demands.

  • General disdain for people in authority.

  • Sulkiness/irritability when asked to do something that one doesn't want. 



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